instructions may be used for initial submission. Full instructions need
to be adhered to if your manuscript is accepted or is nearing
publication (minor or moderate revision).
Manuscripts should be submitted to the Editor-in-Chief by e-mail:
, or alternatively, through Peerage of Science
(www.peerageofscience.org). The manuscript should be written in
English, with – if possible – a Finnish or Swedish summary (expected
from Nordic authors). Use 1.5 or double spacing between lines. A blank
line should be used to separate headings, sections and paragraphs from
the text that follows. Use page and line numbering (per page) if
available in your word processor. Ordinary Research articles and Reviews have a maximum of 10,000 words and Brief reports
at most 4,000 words for the whole manuscript including references,
tables and figure captions. The paper should follow the following
Cover page: title, authors and addresses. Do not
capitalise and include a running title of maximally 80 characters
including spaces. Always use the full first name, initial(s) of other
name(s) and surname, indicating which author is responsible for
correspondence. Postal address should be given separately for each
author, e-mail address only for the corresponding author.
Abstract: should be on a separate page, consisting of one paragraph of up to 250 words. Articles submitted as Brief reports do not require an abstract.
Headings of chapters: Introduction, Material and
Methods, Results, Discussion should be numbered decimally starting with
1. Abstract, References and Acknowledgements are not numbered.
Sub-chapters headings must also be numbered.
References: ampersand (&) should be used instead of ‘and’ to separate authors and use et al.
if more than two authors. In the text, when referring to more than one
publication, arrange by year of publication (ascending) and
alphabetical order for the same year. In the list of references,
journal names are not italicised and written in full. Each reference
must be separated from the next one with one blank line. Click here for a full list of referencing styles.
Tables and figures: place tables on separate pages
after References or embedded in the appropriate places in the text.
Figures should be placed at the end of the manuscript, with the figure
legends all on the same page immediately before the figures themselves.
In the text refer to each table as Table and each figure as Fig.,
followed by their number.
Nomenclature: use English and scientific names as
presented in Dickinson, E. C. (ed.) 2003: The Howard and Moore Complete
Checklist of the Birds of the World: Third Edition. — Princeton
University Press. 1056 pp.
Ornis Fennica is a
quarterly, international journal for the publication of research on
birds. Ornis Fennica publishes analytical and experimental papers on
the ecology, behaviour, biogeography and conservation of birds. The
geographical emphasis of Ornis Fennica is on Fennoscandia, but papers
from other regions will also be considered.
There are no page charges for publication in Ornis Fennica. Ornis
Fennica is an open-access journal. All published articles (from 1924
onwards) are freely available from the journal website.
Authors submitting a
manuscript do so on the understanding that the work has not been
published before, is not being considered for publication elsewhere,
and has been read and approved by all authors. Only manuscripts
prepared on a computer will be considered. After submission, the editor
will decide whether the manuscript fits the scope of the journal and
whether it sufficiently adheres to the journal’s format and language
requirements (described below). After this, approved manuscripts will
be reviewed by at least two peer reviewers.
Submit your manuscript to the Editor-in-Chief or, alternatively, through Peerage of Science (www.peerageofscience.org).
Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis (CEES)
Department of Biosciences
University of Oslo
P.O. Box 1066 Blindern
To speed up the
reviewing process, electronic submission via e-mail is preferred.
Alternatively, three copies of the complete manuscript can be sent by
regular mail. Submitted material will normally not be returned.
should be written in English (consistent usage of either UK or US
spelling), with – if possible – a Finnish or Swedish summary. The text
of a manuscript should be typed without special style settings (unindented, no boldface, capitalization, multiple spaces or other unusual formatting).
Use 1.5 or double spacing between lines. A blank line should be used to
separate headings, sections and paragraphs from the text that follows.
Ordinary Research articles and Reviews have a maximum of 10,000 words
and Brief reports at most 4,000 words for the whole manuscript
including references, tables and figure captions.
Numbering: Number all pages, starting with the title page (page one). Use line numbering (per page), if available in your word processor.
Italics: Use italics only for scientific names of species (e.g., Parus ater), words that are originally not English (e.g., in vitro, et al.), and Roman mathematical symbols (do not italicise Greek letters).
Species names: Use capital initial letters for each
word in species names of birds. Using species names in English is
encouraged, but on first mention of a species in the abstract and in
the text, always indicate the scientific name, e.g., Coal Tit (Parus ater).
Title: Capitalize only the words that are capitalized
elsewhere in the text. Give, apart from the full title, also a running
title of maximally 80 characters including spaces.
Author: Always full first name, followed by initial(s)
of other name(s), if any, and surname (e.g., James T. Brown). Indicate
clearly which author is responsible for the correspondence relating to
Address: Postal address should be given separately for each author, e-mail address only for the corresponding author.
Abstract: should be on a separate page, consisting of
one paragraph of up to 250 words. It should be informative
(summarising) rather than indicative (listing). All relevant key words
should be included in the title and the abstract, and should not be
given as a separate list. Articles submitted as Brief reports do not
require an abstract.
Headings of chapters: Introduction, Material and
methods, Results, Discussion and other main headings are numbered
decimally starting with 1. (Abstract, References and Acknowledgements,
are not numbered). Sub-chapters headings must be numbered e.g., 1.1., 1.1.1. and so on, depending on how many levels of sub-chapters you have in your article.
Referring to literature in the text (examples):
Mihok et al. (1985) or (Mihok et al. 1985).
Kurtén and Anderson (1980) or (Kurtén & Anderson 1980).
(Kurtén & Anderson 1980, Mihok et al. 1985).
When referring to more than one publication, arrange them using the
following keys: 1. year of publication (ascending), 2. alphabetical
order for the same year of publication.
Referring to tables and figures in the text: Tables are referred to as ‘Table’ and figures as ‘Fig.’, followed by their number.
Lists: Begin each item with a single hyphen-dash ‘-’
in the beginning of the line followed by one space. Each item always
occupies a separate line e.g.:
– first item,
– second item.
Equations: Each equation occupies a separate line. Indicate its number on the right-hand side e.g.:
In the text, equations
are referred to as ‘Eq.’. For complicated equations, only Microsoft
Word’s or MathType’s Equation Editor can be used.
References: Begin with the heading ‘References’; they
must have the same format as the text. Journal names are written in
full. Each reference must be separated from the next one with one blank
Ordinary journal article:
Järvinen, O. & Väisänen, R.A. 1978: Long-term changes of the most
abundant south Finnish forest birds during the past 50 years. — Journal
of Ornithology 119: 441–449.
Kurtén, B. & Anderson, E. 1980: Pleistocene mammals of North America. — Columbia Univ. Press, New York.
Clutton-Brock, T.H. (ed.) 1988: Reproductive Success. — University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Chapter in a publication:
Burnham, K.P. 1993: A theory for the combined analysis of ring recovery
and recapture data. — In Marked individuals in the study of bird
populations (ed. Lebreton, J.-D. & North, P.M): 199–213. Birkh
Non-English publications: Use Latin symbols for the author’s
name. Use translated title only if given in the original publication.
State within parentheses the original language and indicate presence of
an English summary:
Okulewicz, J. 1989: Breeding biology and ecology of the Reed Bunting (Emberiza schoeniclus) in the region of Milicz fish pond area. — Ptaki Slaska 7: 1–39. (In Polish with English summary)
Glutz von Blotzheim, U.N. & Bauer, K.M. 1997: Handbuch der Vogel
Mitteleuropas, vol. 14. — AULA Verlag, Wiesbaden. (In German)
Article in press may be included in the references list, with ‘(in press)’ instead of the year of publication.
Material in preparation or unpublished cannot be included in
the reference list, and can only be referred to in the text using all
authors’ initial(s) and name(s) followed by ‘in prep.’, ‘unpubl.’ or
Figure captions: should concisely describe the content
of the figures. All captions should be gathered, separately from the
figures. Captions should be clearly numbered and separated by a blank
Tables: should have self-explanatory headings. At
initial submission Tables should be placed on separate pages after
References, or embedded in the appropriate places in the text along
with a self-explanatory heading. Tables must fit an A4 page (upright)
and are exclusively made using tab stops (one tab stop per column) in
the same word-processing program as the other text. Click here DOC
for more info about tab stops. Never use multiple spaces or spaces and
tabs while formatting tables. Do not use vertical lines as dividers,
only horizontally dashed lines (-----) are allowed.
Figures and drawings: can be inserted in the end of
the document at initial submission, each on a separate page. Every
figure must be identified with the name of the first author and the
number of the figure. Plan your figures and drawings to suit the
journal’s standard widths 69, 107 or 142 mm. Relate the font size, the
thickness of lines, and the size of other parts of a figure, to the
size of the figure itself in order to make sure that figure is
intelligible. Explain all graphic symbols within the figure in the
caption. Identify parts of a composite figure with letters, not
numbers. Do not use fine rasters for filling of columns or areas. Only
solid (white and/or black) or line-type fillings should be used. Avoid
fancy design (e.g., 3-D). Figures produced using a computer program
should be PDF files with all fonts included. Scanned figures should be
bitmap files in the file formats TIFF or JPG, resolution at least 1,000
Photographs: are printed in black-and-white, but can
be in colour in the PDF offprints. You can send paper copies on glossy
paper or slides in regular mail. However, scanned photographs are
preferred – they should have the resolution 300 dpi (grayscale or RGB)
and be adjusted to the standard widths 69, 107 or 142 mm. Digital
camera pictures should be sent as JPG files in colour, file size
preferably 2–4 megabytes.
sufficient detail your statistical model. Make sure that it makes
biological sense, i.e., parameters to be estimated provide quantitative
and straightforward answers to the questions of interest. If not
obvious, justify your choice of model. Distinguish model parameters (to be estimated), random effects (to be integrated out; mixed models) and variables (data).
Describe the scale of the variables (e.g., continuous, discrete,
ordinal, categorical), and their role in the analysis (e.g.,
response/dependent, or explanatory/independent). Describe the study
design, such as replication, and make sure sample size is reported.
Always report the biologically relevant effect sizes. Complement point
estimates with estimates of uncertainty, such as standard errors.
Confidence/credibility intervals are encouraged for parameters of
In frequentistic applications, make sure that any null hypotheses to be tested are biologically feasible. Do not report ‘naked p-values’
without associated effect sizes. Do not imply lack of effect from a
non-significant null hypothesis test, but appreciate the possibility
for lack of power.
Explain how the model was fitted (e.g., least squares, ML, REML, MCMC), and give reference to the software used.
Avoid unnecessary problems of multiple testing and overfitting. Include
in your models only the most relevant and biologically justified
explanatory variables, interactions, polynomial terms, etc. In
applications where extensive multiple testing is done for clearly
exploratory purposes, consider using corrections for significance
levels, such as Bonferroni or false discovery rate.
In model selection, acknowledge the risk for biased statistical
significances in cases where a large number of intitial variables are
refined to a 'reduced model' (e.g., stepwise procedures). Consider
consulting only a small number of a priori defined biologically sensible
models, rather than all possible subsets of explanatory variables.
All manuscripts within
the scope of the journal are reviewed by at least two reviewers.
Authors will generally be notified of provisional acceptance or
rejection within three months. The Author(s) should consider all
suggestions proposed by the referees and the Editor, and make
appropriate changes. Major changes presuppose a new review process. At
final submission all tables, figures, drawings and photographs must be
separate files. The Editor retains the right to modify the style and
length of a manuscript; for major changes the Author(s) will be
The correspondence author will receive a pageproof for approval.
Extensive alterations are not allowed at this stage. The journal
provides a free electronic offprint in PDF format.
Ornis Fennica homepage